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The Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences is published twice a year in June and December. Original research articles, review articles, and short communications of high standards of all branches of Science and Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Review articles are generally by invited authors; however, the Editor welcomes suggestions of potential topics and potential authors. The following instructions must be followed while preparing the manuscript intended for publication in this journal:

1. Research Article: Manuscripts should be concise and consistent with the style of the journal. The manuscript must be typed using Times New Roman font, size 12 on A4 size page, and wide (1 inch) margins on all four sides. The main text must be typed in a two-column format with 1.5 spacing, and for full papers, it should not exceed 10-20 typed pages, including figures, tables, and references. In general, an article may contain the following sub-titles in sequence: Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Acknowledgement (if any), and References.

A. Title: The first page of the paper, the title page, should have the title and the names of the authors. The title should be brief and specific. Abbreviations and formulae should be avoided where possible. The next line in italics should be the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. The corresponding author, along with email address, should be indicated at the footnote with a proper asterisk.

B. The second page should carry the Title of the paper, Abstract, and Keywords. Author(s) name must not be typed on this page.

(i) Abstract: It should not exceed 150 words and should briefly state the purpose of the research, the significant results, and meaningful conclusions. Nonstandard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

(ii) Keywords: Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords.

C. The next pages (a maximum of 15 printed pages), will contain the main text of the paper.

(i) Introduction: It should be concise and relevant to the objectives of the study. The importance of the research work described should be pointed out. An appropriate review of the current literature should be made to identify the frontier of existing knowledge and point out the need for further work. The knowledge contributed to the study should be mentioned.

(ii) Materials and Methods: Materials used should be mentioned precisely along with their sources and any pre-treatment undertaken.

The description of methods must be brief but clear enough to enable a reader to reproduce the results. References must be considered sufficient for methods described in earlier publications: only relevant modifications should be described.

It is recommended that authors use the nomenclature and symbols adopted by IUPAC document UIFII (S.U.N. 65-3) 1965, symbols, units, and nomenclature in Physics or by IUPAC Manual of Physiochemical symbols, Terminology and similarly for other disciplines.

(iii) Results and Discussion: This section should include descriptions of results obtained with the help of figures, tables, graphs, and photographs as may be necessary. Tables should have a descriptive title. Large and cumbersome tables should be avoided. Figures and graphs should be prepared and should be properly labelled with bold solid lines such that no further size reduction will be necessary. The paper should contain a minimum number of Tables, Graphs, and Figures. The same data should not be depicted using both tables and figures. The photographs are to be submitted in JPEG format.

The discussion should include through analysis and interpretation of results, and comparison with existing relevant published results, if any, and self-evaluation of the new knowledge contributed, avoiding extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

(iv) Conclusions The study's main conclusions may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a part of the Results and Discussion section.

(v) Acknowledgment: The following support for the research work should be acknowledged:
> Funding by any agency;
> The use of instruments in a laboratory other than those of the authors;
> Individual’s help during the research (e.g., providing an interpretation of results, language help, writing assistance, or proofreading, etc.).

(vi) Author contributions
For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author contribution statement outlining each author's contributions to the paper. The authors should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

(vii) References and Text Citations: In the text, references should be cited within brackets quoting the first author's surname followed by et al. if necessary and the year of publication in the appropriate place, e.g. (Bhuiyan, 2020), Khan et al. (2021) or (Khan et al., 2021). In the case of only two authors, surnames of both need to be mentioned, e.g., (Khan and Rahman, 2021). A semi colon should separate two or more references when putting within the same bracket. At the end of the manuscript, references should be listed and arranged alphabetically according to the first author's surname according to the style described below:

(a) Journal article:
In each reference, names of all authors' will have to be given in the same style, e.g., surname followed by initials, lumped together without using a full stop. The names will be followed by the full title of the article and the journal's abbreviated title (in italics). The year of publication will be given next, followed by volume number (issue number) and page ranges. For abbreviations of the names of journals, authors are advised to follow the World List of Scientific Periodicals. For online publications, the URL address must be given. Note: Please list ALL authors’ names in the list of references, do not use (et al.). Examples:

Islam S. The Induced Morphological and Root Anatomical Changes in Lentil. J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 2019; 43(2):107-112.

James BD and Bennett DA. Causes and Patterns of Dementia: An Update in the Era of Redefining Alzheimer’s Disease. Annu. Rev. Public Health; 2019; 40: 65-84.

Moniruzzaman M, Khatoon R and Qamruzzaman AKM. Influence of Plant growth Regulators on Vegetative Growth, Sex Expression and Yield of Summer Bottle Gourd. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 2019; 44(4): 577-590.

(b) Book or Chapter in a Book:
The place and name of the publisher, year of publication, will have to be given in addition to the name of the author(s), the title of the book (in italics), edition number (if not first), and the number of pages. In the case of an article or chapter in a book or proceedings of a conference, author(s) name and the title of the article or chapter will be followed by the title of the book (in italics), the names of the editors of the book, edition number (if not first), the place and name of the publisher, year of publication and page or page numbers of chapter. Examples:


Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. p.541.

Cassese A, Acquaviva G, Fan M and Whiting A. International criminal law: cases and commentary. Oxford University Press; 2011, p. 600.

Chapter in an edited book:

Muhammad HFL and Dickinson KM. Nutrients, energy values and health impact of conventional beverages, Chapter 3. In: The Science of Beverages, Volume 12: Nutrients in Beverages, Grumezescu AM, Holban AM, eds., Elsevier Science; 2019; p. 77-109.
Balsam KF, Martell CR, Jones KP, Safren SA. Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In: Culturally responsible cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision, Iwamasa GY, Hays PA,eds., 2nd edition, American Psychological Association. 2019; p. 287-314.

(c) Proceedings of a Conference:

Luca J and Tarricone P. Does emotional intelligence affect successful teamwork? In: Meeting at the Crossroads, Kennedy G, Keppell M, McNaught C, eds., Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, 2001 Dec 9-12; Melbourne: Biomedical Multimedia Unit, The University of Melbourne; 2001. p. 367-76.

(d) Reports:

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Population census - 2011. Preliminary report. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Dhaka, 2011.
Rowe IL and Carson NE. Medical manpower in Victoria. East Bentleigh (AU): Monash University, Department of Community Practice; 1981. p. 35. Report No.: 4.

2. Short communication: Important research findings that may initiate further research in the relevant field may be published in the form of a short communication. This should not exceed three printed pages (900 words), including Graphs, Tables, and Figures. The presentation should be continuous and paragraphed, i.e., without headings like Introduction, Materials, and Methods, etc. A short communication paper should have an Abstract containing the gist of the article and should not exceed 60 words, followed by Keywords.

3. Declarations: While submitting, the corresponding author will have to make a declaration mentioning the laboratory/laboratories in which the work was carried out and certifying that the contents of the paper were not published before or submitted for publication in any other journal and that all the co-authors have given their consent for the article to be considered by the Editorial Board for publication in the Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences.

Declaration of conflicting interests

The corresponding author must provide a formal conflict of interest statement for all authors disclosing any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. If no conflict exists, please state that 'The author(s) declare(s) that they have no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.'

4. The manuscript should be submitted in pdf or MS Word or LaTex files through online at www.bas.org.bd/publications/jbas.html. Equations generated by using Math Type or Math ML should be incorporated in the text.
Soft copies of manuscripts with tables, graphs, illustrations, and photographs placed correctly in a printable format are to be submitted. Authors wishing to publish coloured schemes/diagrams/ sketches/photographs in their papers need to pay for the printing charges of one format. This will be charged only after the acceptance of the manuscripts for publication in the JBAS.
The manuscript submitted should also contain a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations, photographs, and sketches with appropriate captions.

5. Electronic versions of final galley proofs will be sent to authors. No alteration in the title or additions in the text is desirable at this stage.

6. All correspondence for publication should be made on office@bas.org.bd to the Editor, Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, National Science and Technology Complex, Agargaon, Dhaka 1207.

N.B.: No paper will be accepted for publication if it does not conform to the style specified for the journal and approved by the Editorial Board, which has the authority to accept or reject the manuscript of a paper submitted without showing any reason.