M.A., Panjab University and Cambridge. Ph.D. in Theoretical Physics, Cambridge, 1952.
Physics of elementary particles. Particular contributions: Two component neutrino theory and parity violation in weak interaction; gauge unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Predicted existence of weak neutral currents and W.Z. particles
Smith's Prize, University of Cambridge, 1950; Hopkins Prize, Cambridge University, 1957; Adams Prize, Cambridge University, 1958; Sitara-i-Pakistan (S. Pak), 1959; Pride of Performance Medal and Award, Pakistan, 1959; Maxwell Medal and Award, Physical Society, London, 1961; Hughes Medal, Royal Society, London, 1964; Atoms for Peace Medal and Award, Atoms for Peace Foundation, 1968; J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Medal and Prize, University of Miami, 1971; Guthrie Medal and Prize, Institute of Physics, London, 1976; Sir Devaprasad Sarvadhikary Gold Medal, Calcutta University, 1977; Matteuci Medal, Accademia Nazionale Delle Science detta dei XL, Rome, 1978; John Torrence Tate Medal, American Institute of Physics, 1978; Royal Medal, Royal Society, London, 1978; Nobel Prize for Physics, 1979; Einstein Medal, UNESCO, Paris, 1979; Shri R. D. Birla Award, Indian Physics Association, 1979; Order to Nishan-i-Imtiaz, Pakistan, 1979; Josef Stefan Medal, Josef Stefan Institute, Ljublijana, 1980; Order of Andres Bello, Venezuela, 1980; Order of Istiqlal, Jordan, 1980; Cavaliere di Gran Croce, Order of Merit, Italian Republic, 1980; Gold Medal, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, 1981; Peace Medal, Charles University, Prague 1981; Lomonosov Gold Medal U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, 1983.
Professor, Government College and Panjab University, Lahore, 1951 - 1954; Member, Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, 1951; Lecturer, Cambridge University, 1954 - 1956; Professor of Theoretical Physics, Imperial College, University of London, 1957; Member, Atomic Energy Commission, Pakistan, 1958 - 1974; Adviser, Educaton Committee, Pakistan, 1961 -1974; President, Pakistan Association for the Advancement of Science, 1961 - 1962; Chairman, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Committee, 1961 - 1964; Governor from Pakistan to the International Atomic Energy Agency, 1962 - 1963; Founder and Director, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 1964; Member, United Nations University, 1970 - 1973; Chairman, United Nations Advisory Committee on Science and Technology, 1971 - 1972; Vice-President, Inter- national Union of Pure and Applied Physics, 1972 and 1978; Chairman, UNESCO Advisory Panel on Science, Technology and Society, 1981.
He had more than 276 research papers and published 13 books.
Pakistan Academy of Sciences; Royal Society of London; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Foreign Fellow, Bangladesh Academy of Sciences; Foreign Fellow, Indian National Science Academy; Hon. Fellow, China Academy of Arts and Sciences.
European Academy of Sciences; Arts and Humanities; Pontifical Academy of Sciences; Foreign Members: American Academy of Arts and Sciences; U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences; Accademia nazionale dei Lincei; Iraqi Academy; Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco; Accademia nazionale delle Science detta dei XL; Corresponding Member: Academy of Sciences of Portugal, Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts; Foreign Associate, U.S.A. National Academy of Sciences.